The Special Work Department
The ROC's first intelligence organization was instituted during the period of the "Northern Expedition against the Warlords." In 1928, when the late President Chiang Kai-shek was Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, he set up the "Clandestine Investigation Section" directly under the Army's Headquarters with the aims of an early victory of the war to quell the nationwide unrest and minimize the loss of life by making the most of military and political intelligence. General Dai Li was assigned to head the section, which was tasked to collect intelligence from the front-lines. In 1931, Manchuria in northeastern China fell into enemy hands due to the " September 18 Incident." In 1932, Japanese troops invaded Shanghai in the "January 28 Incident." To expel the invaders and bring peace to the country, President Chiang, then the Chairman of Military Commission under the Nationalists' Government, decided at a high-level meeting in March 1932 to build an intelligence network responsible for collecting information regarding situations at home and abroad. The "Special Works Department" was therefore established on April 1, 1932. In September, when the "Investigation and Statistics Bureau" was established under the Military Commission, the "Special Works Department" was incorporated into the Bureau and renamed the "Second Division" responsible for intelligence collection and personnel training.
The Investigation and Statistics Bureau
Our nation formally declared war on Japan in 1937. The war zone had been expanding as a result of the government's applying a long-term fighting policy; consequently, the Special Works Department was expanded and took over the " Investigation and Statistics Bureau" to cope with the increasingly heavy tasks of intelligence operations. While Pres. Chiang, Chairman of the Military Commission concurrently headed this Bureau, General Dai Li was assigned as the Deputy Director given the de facto responsibility for running the unit.
The Counterespionage Bureau
Following the Nationalists' Government moving back to Nanjing in May 1946 in the wake of winning a victory over Japanese aggression, the Ministry of National Defense was established to replace Military Commission. Meanwhile, the Investigation and Statistics Bureau was reorganized as the Counterespionage Bureau under the Ministry of National Defense, responsible for counter-intelligence operations in August the same year. The Counterespionage Bureau formally resumed operations and relocated its Headquarters to Chihshan Yen, Shihlin, Taipei City in June 1950.
The Intelligence Bureau
In 1955, when the ROC government reorganized its intelligence services and functions, this Bureau was again reorganized as the Intelligence Bureau, responsible for early-warning intelligence collection and analysis at strategic levels. Since then, the Bureau of Investigation, Ministry of Justice took over the functions of counterespionage and investigation from this Bureau.
The Military Intelligence Bureau
On July 1, 1985, the Military Intelligence Bureau was created by merging the Special Military Intelligence Office with the Intelligence Bureau. The Military Intelligence Bureau was subordinated to the Ministry of National Defense under the direct command of the Chief of the General Staff.